White Paper on Publication Ethics

CSE’s White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications

CSE’s White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications was first published in 2006 and the full document was updated in 2009 and again in 2012. Beginning May 4, 2018, the paper will be updated on a rolling basis as new sections are added and/or existing sections are updated to reflect new information or best practices. This updated method for amending the document will allow for more rapid dissemination of updates. E-mails from the CSE Marketing Committee as well as Commentaries in the Science Editor will alert the membership to the updates.

Download a PDF of the entire White Paper

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN PUBLISHING

2.1 Editor Roles and Responsibilities

2.1.1   Editorial Freedom
2.1.2   Confidentiality
2.1.3   Conflicts of Interest
2.1.4   Conflict of Interest Disclosure
2.1.5   Citation Manipulation
2.1.6   Editorial Board Participation *Updated* May 2018
2.1.7   Timeliness of the Publication Process
2.1.8   Errata, Retractions, and Expressions of Concern
2.1.9   Addressing Authorship Disputes
2.1.10 Considering Appeals for Reconsideration of Rejected Manuscripts
2.1.11 Addressing Allegations or Findings of Misconduct (see section 3.0)
2.1.12 Preprint Servers *New* May 2018
2.1.13 References
2.1.14 Resources and Case Studies
Appendix

2.2 Authorship and Author Responsibilities

2.2.1   Authorship
2.2.2   Contributorship Models
2.2.3   Acknowledgments
2.2.4   Order of Authors
2.2.5   Changes to the Author Byline
2.2.6   Author Responsibilities
2.2.7   References
2.2.8   Resources and Case Studies

2.3 Reviewer Roles and Responsibilities

2.3.1   Reviewer Selection
2.3.2   Ethical Responsibilities of Reviewers
2.3.3   Examples of Reviewer Impropriety
2.3.4   Using Anonymous Reviewers: Critique of the Process
2.3.5   Rewarding Reviewers
2.3.6   References
2.3.7   Resources and Case Studies

2.4 Sponsor Roles and Responsibilities

2.4.1   Introduction

2.4.1.1   Publication Planning
2.4.1.2   Authorship
2.4.1.3   Process Control (Content and Journal Selection)
2.4.1.4   Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
2.4.1.5   Access to and Provision of Data
2.4.1.6   Copyright
2.4.1.7   Clinical Trial Registration and Dissemination of Findings

2.4.2   Proper Sponsor Conduct and Ethical Practices
2.4.3   Concluding Remarks
2.4.4   References

2.5 Relations between Editors and Publishers, Sponsoring Societies, or Journal Owners

2.5.1   Resources and Case Studies
2.5.2   Publication Oversight Committees *New* May 2018

2.6 Responsibilities to the Media

2.6.1   Resources and Case Studies

3.0 IDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCH MISCONDUCT AND GUIDELINES FOR ACTION

3.1 Description of Research Misconduct

3.1.1   Mistreatment of Research Subjects
3.1.2   Falsification and Fabrication of Data
3.1.3   Piracy and Plagiarism
3.1.4   References

3.2 International Models for Responding to Research Misconduct

3.2.1   National Bodies Responding to the Problem
3.2.2   Definition of Research Misconduct
3.2.3   The Investigation
3.2.4   Post-Investigation Issues
3.2.5   References

3.3 Reporting Suspect Manuscripts

3.3.1   Why Might a Manuscript be Considered Suspect?
3.3.2   Who Might Notify a Journal about a Suspect Manuscript?
3.3.3   What Should be Done When Misconduct is Alleged?
3.3.4   Whom Should a Journal Notify about a Suspect Manuscript?
3.3.5   What to do if the Submitting Author’s Response is not Satisfactory
3.3.6   Who Investigates Allegations of Misconduct?
3.3.7   What Information Should be Provided During Investigations?
3.3.8   Handling Accusations from Anonymous Sources
3.3.9   References

3.4 Digital Images and Misconduct

3.4.1   Guidelines for Handling Image Data
3.4.2   Procedure for Handling Guideline Violations
3.4.3   References

3.5 Correcting the Literature

3.5.1   Definitions
3.5.2   Processes and Considerations

3.5.2.1   Editor’s List of Correction Considerations
3.5.2.2   Editor’s List of Elements and Operations for Corrections

3.5.3   Examples of Errata, Partial Retractions, Retractions, and Expressions of Concern

3.5.3.1   Errata
3.5.3.2   Partial Retraction
3.5.3.3   Retractions
3.5.3.4   Expressions of Concern

3.5.4   References

3.6 Handling Third-Party Inquiries About Scientific Misconduct

3.6.1   Media
3.6.2   Legal Counsel
3.6.3   Federal Agencies

CSE Editorial Policy Committee

Acknowledgments